COM 和 .Net(Windows)函数

简介

COM is an acronym for Component Object Model; it is an object orientated layer (and associated services) on top of DCE RPC (an open standard) and defines a common calling convention that enables code written in any language to call and interoperate with code written in any other language (provided those languages are COM aware). Not only can the code be written in any language, but it need not even be part of the same executable; the code can be loaded from a DLL, be found in another process running on the same machine, or, with DCOM (Distributed COM), be found in another process on a remote machine, all without your code even needing to know where a component resides.

There is a subset of COM known as OLE Automation which comprises a set of COM interfaces that allow loose binding to COM objects, so that they can be introspected and called at run-time without compile-time knowledge of how the object works. The PHP COM extension utilizes the OLE Automation interfaces to allow you to create and call compatible objects from your scripts. Technically speaking, this should really be called the "OLE Automation Extension for PHP", since not all COM objects are OLE compatible.

Now, why would or should you use COM? COM is one of the main ways to glue applications and components together on the Windows platform; using COM you can launch Microsoft Word, fill in a document template and save the result as a Word document and send it to a visitor of your web site. You can also use COM to perform administrative tasks for your network and to configure your IIS; these are just the most common uses; you can do much more with COM.

Starting with PHP 5, this extension (and this documentation) was rewritten from scratch and much of the old confusing and bogus cruft has be removed. Additionally, we support the instantiation and creation of .Net assemblies using the COM interoperability layer provided by Microsoft.

Please read » this article for an overview of the changes in this extension in PHP 5.

需求

COM functions are only available for the Windows version of PHP.

.Net support requires PHP 5 and the .Net runtime.

安装

本扩展模块作为 PHP 内核的一部分,无需安装即可使用。

PHP 的 Windows 版本已经内置该扩展模块的支持。无需加载任何附加扩展库即可使用这些函数。

You are responsible for installing support for the various COM objects that you intend to use (such as MS Word); we don't and can't bundle all of those with PHP.

For Each

Starting with PHP 5, you may use PHP's own “foreach”一节 statement to iterate over the contents of a standard COM/OLE IEnumVariant. In laymans terms, this means that you can use foreach in places where you would have used For Each in VB/ASP code.

例 369. For Each in ASP

<%
Set domainObject = GetObject("WinNT://Domain")
For Each obj in domainObject
 Response.Write obj.Name & "<br />"
Next
%>

例 370. while() ... Next() in PHP 4

<?php
$domainObject
= new COM("WinNT://Domain");
while (
$obj = $domainObject->Next()) {
  echo
$obj->Name . "<br />";
}
?>

例 371. foreach in PHP 5

<?php
$domainObject
= new COM("WinNT://Domain");
foreach (
$domainObject as $obj) {
  echo
$obj->Name . "<br />";
}
?>

Arrays and Array-style COM properties

Many COM objects expose their properties as arrays, or using array-style access. In PHP 4, you may use PHP array syntax to read/write such a property, but only a single dimension is allowed. If you want to read a multi-dimensional property, you could instead make the property access into a function call, with each parameter representing each dimension of the array access, but there is no way to write to such a property.

PHP 5 introduces the following new features to make your life easier:

  • Access multi-dimensional arrays, or COM properties that require multiple parameters using PHP array syntax. You can also write or set properties using this technique.

  • Iterate SafeArrays ("true" arrays) using the “foreach”一节 control structure. This works because SafeArrays include information about their size. If an array-style property implements IEnumVariant then you can also use foreach for that property too; take a look at “For Each”一节 for more information on this topic.

Exceptions (PHP 5)

This extension will throw instances of the class com_exception whenever there is a potentially fatal error reported by COM. All COM exceptions have a well-defined code property that corresponds to the HRESULT return value from the various COM operations. You may use this code to make programmatic decisions on how to handle the exception.

运行时配置

这些函数的行为受 php.ini 的影响。

表 24. COM 配置选项

名称默认值可修改范围更新记录
com.allow_dcom"0"PHP_INI_SYSTEM自 PHP 4.0.5 起可用
com.autoregister_typelib"0"PHP_INI_ALL在 PHP 4 中是 PHP_INI_SYSTEM。自 PHP 4.1.0 起可用
com.autoregister_verbose"0"PHP_INI_ALL在 PHP 4 中是 PHP_INI_SYSTEM。自 PHP 4.1.0 起可用
com.autoregister_casesensitive"1"PHP_INI_ALL在 PHP 4 中是 PHP_INI_SYSTEM。自 PHP 4.1.0 起可用
com.code_page""PHP_INI_ALL自 PHP 5.0.0 起可用
com.typelib_file""PHP_INI_SYSTEM自 PHP 4.0.5 起可用

有关 PHP_INI_* 常量进一步的细节与定义参见附录 G, php.ini 配置选项

以下是配置选项的简要解释。

com.allow_dcom

如果打开此选项,PHP 将被允许以一个 D-COM(Distributed COM)客户方式操作并允许 PHP 脚本在远程服务器上实例化 COM 对象。

com.autoregister_typelib

When this is turned on, PHP will attempt to register constants from the typelibrary of objects that it instantiates, if those objects implement the interfaces required to obtain that information. The case sensitivity of the constants it registers is controlled by the com.autoregister_casesensitive configuration directive.

com.autoregister_verbose

When this is turned on, any problems with loading a typelibrary during object instantiation will be reported using the PHP error mechanism. The default is off, which does not emit any indication if there was an error finding or loading the type library.

com.autoregister_casesensitive

When this is turned on (the default), constants found in auto-loaded type libraries will be registered case sensitively. See com_load_typelib() for more details.

com.code_page

It controls the default character set code-page to use when passing strings to and from COM objects. If set to an empty string, PHP will assume that you want CP_ACP, which is the default system ANSI code page.

If the text in your scripts is encoded using a different encoding/character set by default, setting this directive will save you from having to pass the code page as a parameter to the COM class constructor. Please note that by using this directive (as with any PHP configuration directive), your PHP script becomes less portable; you should use the COM constructor parameter whenever possible.

注意:

This configuration directive was introduced with PHP 5.

com.typelib_file

When set, this should hold the path to a file that contains a list of typelibraries that should be loaded on startup. Each line of the file will be treated as the type library name and loaded as though you had called com_load_typelib(). The constants will be registered persistently, so that the library only needs to be loaded once. If a type library name ends with the string #cis or #case_insensitive, then the constants from that library will be registered case insensitively.

预定义常量

以下常量由本扩展模块定义,因此只有在本扩展模块被编译到 PHP 中,或者在运行时被动态加载后才有效。

CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER (integer)
CLSCTX_INPROC_HANDLER (integer)
CLSCTX_LOCAL_SERVER (integer)
CLSCTX_REMOTE_SERVER (integer)
CLSCTX_SERVER (integer)
CLSCTX_ALL (integer)
VT_NULL (integer)
VT_EMPTY (integer)
VT_UI1 (integer)
VT_I2 (integer)
VT_I4 (integer)
VT_R4 (integer)
VT_R8 (integer)
VT_BOOL (integer)
VT_ERROR (integer)
VT_CY (integer)
VT_DATE (integer)
VT_BSTR (integer)
VT_DECIMAL (integer)
VT_UNKNOWN (integer)
VT_DISPATCH (integer)
VT_VARIANT (integer)
VT_I1 (integer)
VT_UI2 (integer)
VT_UI4 (integer)
VT_INT (integer)
VT_UINT (integer)
VT_ARRAY (integer)
VT_BYREF (integer)
CP_ACP (integer)
CP_MACCP (integer)
CP_OEMCP (integer)
CP_UTF7 (integer)
CP_UTF8 (integer)
CP_SYMBOL (integer)
CP_THREAD_ACP (integer)
VARCMP_LT (integer)
VARCMP_EQ (integer)
VARCMP_GT (integer)
VARCMP_NULL (integer)
NORM_IGNORECASE (integer)
NORM_IGNORENONSPACE (integer)
NORM_IGNORESYMBOLS (integer)
NORM_IGNOREWIDTH (integer)
NORM_IGNOREKANATYPE (integer)
NORM_IGNOREKASHIDA (integer)
DISP_E_DIVBYZERO (integer)
DISP_E_OVERFLOW (integer)
MK_E_UNAVAILABLE (integer)

参见

For further information on COM read the » COM specification or perhaps take a look at Don Box's » Yet Another COM Library (YACL). You might find some additional useful information in our FAQ for 第 9 章 PHP 和 COM. If you're thinking of using MS Office applications on the server side, you should read the information here: » Considerations for Server-Side Automation of Office.

目录

COM - COM 类
DOTNET - DOTNET class
VARIANT - VARIANT 类
com_addref - 增加组件引用计数。[被废弃]
com_create_guid - Generate a globally unique identifier (GUID)
com_event_sink - Connect events from a COM object to a PHP object
com_get_active_object - Returns a handle to an already running instance of a COM object
com_get - 获取 COM 组件的属性值 [被废弃]
com_invoke - 调用 COM 组件的方法。
com_isenum - 获取一个 IEnumVariant
com_load_typelib - 装载一个 Typelib
com_load - 创建新的 COM 组件的引用
com_message_pump - Process COM messages, sleeping for up to timeoutms milliseconds
com_print_typeinfo - Print out a PHP class definition for a dispatchable interface
com_propget - com_get 的别名
com_propput - com_set 的别名
com_propset - com_set 的别名
com_release - 减少组件引用计数。[被废弃]
com_set - 给 COM 组件的属性赋值
variant_abs - Returns the absolute value of a variant
variant_add - "Adds" two variant values together and returns the result
variant_and - performs a bitwise AND operation between two variants and returns the result
variant_cast - Convert a variant into a new variant object of another type
variant_cat - concatenates two variant values together and returns the result
variant_cmp - Compares two variants
variant_date_from_timestamp - Returns a variant date representation of a unix timestamp
variant_date_to_timestamp - Converts a variant date/time value to unix timestamp
variant_div - Returns the result from dividing two variants
variant_eqv - Performs a bitwise equivalence on two variants
variant_fix - Returns the integer portion ? of a variant
variant_get_type - Returns the type of a variant object
variant_idiv - Converts variants to integers and then returns the result from dividing them
variant_imp - Performs a bitwise implication on two variants
variant_int - Returns the integer portion of a variant
variant_mod - Divides two variants and returns only the remainder
variant_mul - multiplies the values of the two variants and returns the result
variant_neg - Performs logical negation on a variant
variant_not - Performs bitwise not negation on a variant
variant_or - Performs a logical disjunction on two variants
variant_pow - Returns the result of performing the power function with two variants
variant_round - Rounds a variant to the specified number of decimal places
variant_set_type - Convert a variant into another type "in-place"
variant_set - Assigns a new value for a variant object
variant_sub - subtracts the value of the right variant from the left variant value and returns the result
variant_xor - Performs a logical exclusion on two variants