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Apache模块 mod_ssl

说明使用安全套接字层(SSL)和传输层安全(TLS)协议实现高强度加密传输
状态扩展(E)
模块名ssl_module
源文件mod_ssl.c

概述

This module provides SSL v2/v3 and TLS v1 support for the Apache HTTP Server. It was contributed by Ralf S. Engeschall based on his mod_ssl project and originally derived from work by Ben Laurie.

This module relies on OpenSSL to provide the cryptography engine.

Further details, discussion, and examples are provided in the SSL documentation.

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Environment Variables

This module provides a lot of SSL information as additional environment variables to the SSI and CGI namespace. The generated variables are listed in the table below. For backward compatibility the information can be made available under different names, too. Look in the Compatibility chapter for details on the compatibility variables.

Variable Name:Value Type:Description:
HTTPSflagHTTPS is being used.
SSL_PROTOCOLstringThe SSL protocol version (SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1)
SSL_SESSION_IDstringThe hex-encoded SSL session id
SSL_CIPHERstringThe cipher specification name
SSL_CIPHER_EXPORTstringtrue if cipher is an export cipher
SSL_CIPHER_USEKEYSIZEnumberNumber of cipher bits (actually used)
SSL_CIPHER_ALGKEYSIZEnumberNumber of cipher bits (possible)
SSL_COMPRESS_METHODstringSSL compression method negotiated
SSL_VERSION_INTERFACEstringThe mod_ssl program version
SSL_VERSION_LIBRARYstringThe OpenSSL program version
SSL_CLIENT_M_VERSIONstringThe version of the client certificate
SSL_CLIENT_M_SERIALstringThe serial of the client certificate
SSL_CLIENT_S_DNstringSubject DN in client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_x509stringComponent of client's Subject DN
SSL_CLIENT_I_DNstringIssuer DN of client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_x509stringComponent of client's Issuer DN
SSL_CLIENT_V_STARTstringValidity of client's certificate (start time)
SSL_CLIENT_V_ENDstringValidity of client's certificate (end time)
SSL_CLIENT_V_REMAINstringNumber of days until client's certificate expires
SSL_CLIENT_A_SIGstringAlgorithm used for the signature of client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_A_KEYstringAlgorithm used for the public key of client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_CERTstringPEM-encoded client certificate
SSL_CLIENT_CERT_CHAIN_nstringPEM-encoded certificates in client certificate chain
SSL_CLIENT_VERIFYstringNONE, SUCCESS, GENEROUSFAILED:reason
SSL_SERVER_M_VERSIONstringThe version of the server certificate
SSL_SERVER_M_SERIALstringThe serial of the server certificate
SSL_SERVER_S_DNstringSubject DN in server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_S_DN_x509stringComponent of server's Subject DN
SSL_SERVER_I_DNstringIssuer DN of server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_I_DN_x509stringComponent of server's Issuer DN
SSL_SERVER_V_STARTstringValidity of server's certificate (start time)
SSL_SERVER_V_ENDstringValidity of server's certificate (end time)
SSL_SERVER_A_SIGstringAlgorithm used for the signature of server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_A_KEYstringAlgorithm used for the public key of server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_CERTstringPEM-encoded server certificate

x509 specifies a component of an X.509 DN; one of C,ST,L,O,OU,CN,T,I,G,S,D,UID,Email. In Apache 2.1 and later, x509 may also include a numeric _n suffix. If the DN in question contains multiple attributes of the same name, this suffix is used as an index to select a particular attribute. For example, where the server certificate subject DN included two OU fields, SSL_SERVER_S_DN_OU_0SSL_SERVER_S_DN_OU_1 could be used to reference each.

SSL_CLIENT_V_REMAIN is only available in version 2.1 and later.

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Custom Log Formats

When mod_ssl is built into Apache or at least loaded (under DSO situation) additional functions exist for the Custom Log Format of mod_log_config. First there is an additional "%{varname}x" eXtension format function which can be used to expand any variables provided by any module, especially those provided by mod_ssl which can you find in the above table.

For backward compatibility there is additionally a special "%{name}c" cryptography format function provided. Information about this function is provided in the Compatibility chapter.

示例

CustomLog logs/ssl_request_log \ "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"

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SSLCACertificateFile 指令

说明File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Client Auth
语法SSLCACertificateFile file-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CA) whose clients you deal with. These are used for Client Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded Certificate files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLCACertificatePath.

示例

SSLCACertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/ca-bundle-client.crt

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SSLCACertificatePath 指令

说明Directory of PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Client Auth
语法SSLCACertificatePath directory-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose clients you deal with. These are used to verify the client certificate on Client Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you can't just place the Certificate files there: you also have to create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

示例

SSLCACertificatePath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/

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SSLCADNRequestFile 指令

说明File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA Certificates for defining acceptable CA names
语法SSLCADNRequestFile file-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

When a client certificate is requested by mod_ssl, a list of acceptable Certificate Authority names is sent to the client in the SSL handshake. These CA names can be used by the client to select an appropriate client certificate out of those it has available.

If neither of the directives SSLCADNRequestPathSSLCADNRequestFile are given, then the set of acceptable CA names sent to the client is the names of all the CA certificates given by the SSLCACertificateFileSSLCACertificatePath directives; in other words, the names of the CAs which will actually be used to verify the client certificate.

In some circumstances, it is useful to be able to send a set of acceptable CA names which differs from the actual CAs used to verify the client certificate - for example, if the client certificates are signed by intermediate CAs. In such cases, SSLCADNRequestPath and/or SSLCADNRequestFile can be used; the acceptable CA names are then taken from the complete set of certificates in the directory and/or file specified by this pair of directives.

SSLCADNRequestFile must specify an all-in-one file containing a concatenation of PEM-encoded CA certificates.

示例

SSLCADNRequestFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ca-names.crt

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SSLCADNRequestPath 指令

说明Directory of PEM-encoded CA Certificates for defining acceptable CA names
语法SSLCADNRequestPath directory-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This optional directive can be used to specify the set of acceptable CA names which will be sent to the client when a client certificate is requested. See the SSLCADNRequestFile directive for more details.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you can't just place the Certificate files there: you also have to create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

示例

SSLCADNRequestPath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ca-names.crt/

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SSLCARevocationFile 指令

说明File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Client Auth
语法SSLCARevocationFile file-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CA) whose clients you deal with. These are used for Client Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded CRL files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLCARevocationPath.

示例

SSLCARevocationFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/ca-bundle-client.crl

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SSLCARevocationPath 指令

说明Directory of PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Client Auth
语法SSLCARevocationPath directory-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose clients you deal with. These are used to revoke the client certificate on Client Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you have not only to place the CRL files there. Additionally you have to create symbolic links named hash-value.rN. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

示例

SSLCARevocationPath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/

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SSLCertificateChainFile 指令

说明File of PEM-encoded Server CA Certificates
语法SSLCertificateChainFile file-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the optional all-in-one file where you can assemble the certificates of Certification Authorities (CA) which form the certificate chain of the server certificate. This starts with the issuing CA certificate of of the server certificate and can range up to the root CA certificate. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded CA Certificate files, usually in certificate chain order.

This should be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLCACertificatePath for explicitly constructing the server certificate chain which is sent to the browser in addition to the server certificate. It is especially useful to avoid conflicts with CA certificates when using client authentication. Because although placing a CA certificate of the server certificate chain into SSLCACertificatePath has the same effect for the certificate chain construction, it has the side-effect that client certificates issued by this same CA certificate are also accepted on client authentication. That's usually not one expect.

But be careful: Providing the certificate chain works only if you are using a single (either RSA DSA) based server certificate. If you are using a coupled RSA+DSA certificate pair, this will work only if actually both certificates use the same certificate chain. Else the browsers will be confused in this situation.

示例

SSLCertificateChainFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/ca.crt

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SSLCertificateFile 指令

说明Server PEM-encoded X.509 Certificate file
语法SSLCertificateFile file-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive points to the PEM-encoded Certificate file for the server and optionally also to the corresponding RSA or DSA Private Key file for it (contained in the same file). If the contained Private Key is encrypted the Pass Phrase dialog is forced at startup time. This directive can be used up to two times (referencing different filenames) when both a RSA and a DSA based server certificate is used in parallel.

示例

SSLCertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt

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SSLCertificateKeyFile 指令

说明Server PEM-encoded Private Key file
语法SSLCertificateKeyFile file-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive points to the PEM-encoded Private Key file for the server. If the Private Key is not combined with the Certificate in the SSLCertificateFile, use this additional directive to point to the file with the stand-alone Private Key. When SSLCertificateFile is used and the file contains both the Certificate and the Private Key this directive need not be used. But we strongly discourage this practice. Instead we recommend you to separate the Certificate and the Private Key. If the contained Private Key is encrypted, the Pass Phrase dialog is forced at startup time. This directive can be used up to two times (referencing different filenames) when both a RSA and a DSA based private key is used in parallel.

示例

SSLCertificateKeyFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.key/server.key

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SSLCipherSuite 指令

说明Cipher Suite available for negotiation in SSL handshake
语法SSLCipherSuite cipher-spec
默认值SSLCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP
作用域server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
覆盖项AuthConfig
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This complex directive uses a colon-separated cipher-spec string consisting of OpenSSL cipher specifications to configure the Cipher Suite the client is permitted to negotiate in the SSL handshake phase. Notice that this directive can be used both in per-server and per-directory context. In per-server context it applies to the standard SSL handshake when a connection is established. In per-directory context it forces a SSL renegotation with the reconfigured Cipher Suite after the HTTP request was read but before the HTTP response is sent.

An SSL cipher specification in cipher-spec is composed of 4 major attributes plus a few extra minor ones:

An SSL cipher can also be an export cipher and is either a SSLv2 or SSLv3/TLSv1 cipher (here TLSv1 is equivalent to SSLv3). To specify which ciphers to use, one can either specify all the Ciphers, one at a time, or use aliases to specify the preference and order for the ciphers (see Table 1).

TagDescription
Key Exchange Algorithm:
kRSARSA key exchange
kDHrDiffie-Hellman key exchange with RSA key
kDHdDiffie-Hellman key exchange with DSA key
kEDHEphemeral (temp.key) Diffie-Hellman key exchange (no cert)
Authentication Algorithm:
aNULLNo authentication
aRSARSA authentication
aDSSDSS authentication
aDHDiffie-Hellman authentication
Cipher Encoding Algorithm:
eNULLNo encoding
DESDES encoding
3DESTriple-DES encoding
RC4RC4 encoding
RC2RC2 encoding
IDEAIDEA encoding
MAC Digest Algorithm:
MD5MD5 hash function
SHA1SHA1 hash function
SHASHA hash function
Aliases:
SSLv2all SSL version 2.0 ciphers
SSLv3all SSL version 3.0 ciphers
TLSv1all TLS version 1.0 ciphers
EXPall export ciphers
EXPORT40all 40-bit export ciphers only
EXPORT56all 56-bit export ciphers only
LOWall low strength ciphers (no export, single DES)
MEDIUMall ciphers with 128 bit encryption
HIGHall ciphers using Triple-DES
RSAall ciphers using RSA key exchange
DHall ciphers using Diffie-Hellman key exchange
EDHall ciphers using Ephemeral Diffie-Hellman key exchange
ADHall ciphers using Anonymous Diffie-Hellman key exchange
DSSall ciphers using DSS authentication
NULLall ciphers using no encryption

Now where this becomes interesting is that these can be put together to specify the order and ciphers you wish to use. To speed this up there are also aliases (SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1, EXP, LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH) for certain groups of ciphers. These tags can be joined together with prefixes to form the cipher-spec. Available prefixes are:

A simpler way to look at all of this is to use the "openssl ciphers -v" command which provides a nice way to successively create the correct cipher-spec string. The default cipher-spec string is "ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP" which means the following: first, remove from consideration any ciphers that do not authenticate, i.e. for SSL only the Anonymous Diffie-Hellman ciphers. Next, use ciphers using RC4 and RSA. Next include the high, medium and then the low security ciphers. Finally pull all SSLv2 and export ciphers to the end of the list.

$ openssl ciphers -v 'ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP'
NULL-SHA                SSLv3 Kx=RSA      Au=RSA  Enc=None      Mac=SHA1
NULL-MD5                SSLv3 Kx=RSA      Au=RSA  Enc=None      Mac=MD5
EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA    SSLv3 Kx=DH       Au=RSA  Enc=3DES(168) Mac=SHA1
...                     ...               ...     ...           ...
EXP-RC4-MD5             SSLv3 Kx=RSA(512) Au=RSA  Enc=RC4(40)   Mac=MD5  export
EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5         SSLv2 Kx=RSA(512) Au=RSA  Enc=RC2(40)   Mac=MD5  export
EXP-RC4-MD5             SSLv2 Kx=RSA(512) Au=RSA  Enc=RC4(40)   Mac=MD5  export

The complete list of particular RSA & DH ciphers for SSL is given in Table 2.

示例

SSLCipherSuite RSA:!EXP:!NULL:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:-LOW

Cipher-TagProtocolKey Ex.Auth.Enc.MACType
RSA Ciphers:
DES-CBC3-SHASSLv3RSARSA3DES(168)SHA1
DES-CBC3-MD5SSLv2RSARSA3DES(168)MD5
IDEA-CBC-SHASSLv3RSARSAIDEA(128)SHA1
RC4-SHASSLv3RSARSARC4(128)SHA1
RC4-MD5SSLv3RSARSARC4(128)MD5
IDEA-CBC-MD5SSLv2RSARSAIDEA(128)MD5
RC2-CBC-MD5SSLv2RSARSARC2(128)MD5
RC4-MD5SSLv2RSARSARC4(128)MD5
DES-CBC-SHASSLv3RSARSADES(56)SHA1
RC4-64-MD5SSLv2RSARSARC4(64)MD5
DES-CBC-MD5SSLv2RSARSADES(56)MD5
EXP-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3RSA(512)RSADES(40)SHA1 export
EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5SSLv3RSA(512)RSARC2(40)MD5 export
EXP-RC4-MD5SSLv3RSA(512)RSARC4(40)MD5 export
EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5SSLv2RSA(512)RSARC2(40)MD5 export
EXP-RC4-MD5SSLv2RSA(512)RSARC4(40)MD5 export
NULL-SHASSLv3RSARSANoneSHA1
NULL-MD5SSLv3RSARSANoneMD5
Diffie-Hellman Ciphers:
ADH-DES-CBC3-SHASSLv3DHNone3DES(168)SHA1
ADH-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DHNoneDES(56)SHA1
ADH-RC4-MD5SSLv3DHNoneRC4(128)MD5
EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHASSLv3DHRSA3DES(168)SHA1
EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHASSLv3DHDSS3DES(168)SHA1
EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DHRSADES(56)SHA1
EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DHDSSDES(56)SHA1
EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DH(512)RSADES(40)SHA1 export
EXP-EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DH(512)DSSDES(40)SHA1 export
EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DH(512)NoneDES(40)SHA1 export
EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5SSLv3DH(512)NoneRC4(40)MD5 export
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SSLCryptoDevice 指令

说明Enable use of a cryptographic hardware accelerator
语法SSLCryptoDevice engine
默认值SSLCryptoDevice builtin
作用域server config
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl
兼容性Available if mod_ssl is built using -DSSL_ENGINE_EXPERIMENTAL

This directive enables use of a cryptographic hardware accelerator board to offload some of the SSL processing overhead. This directive can only be used if the SSL toolkit is built with "engine" support; OpenSSL 0.9.7 and later releases have "engine" support by default, the separate "-engine" releases of OpenSSL 0.9.6 must be used.

To discover which engine names are supported, run the command "openssl engine".

示例

# For a Broadcom accelerator:
SSLCryptoDevice ubsec

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SSLEngine 指令

说明SSL Engine Operation Switch
语法SSLEngine on|off|optional
默认值SSLEngine off
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive toggles the usage of the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine. This is usually used inside a <VirtualHost> section to enable SSL/TLS for a particular virtual host. By default the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine is disabled for both the main server and all configured virtual hosts.

示例

<VirtualHost _default_:443>
SSLEngine on
...
</VirtualHost>

In Apache 2.1 and later, SSLEngine can be set to optional. This enables support for RFC 2817, Upgrading to TLS Within HTTP/1.1. At this time no web browsers support RFC 2817.

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SSLHonorCipherOrder 指令

说明Option to prefer the server's cipher preference order
语法SSLHonorCiperOrder flag
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl
兼容性仅在 Apache 2.1 and later, if using OpenSSL 0.9.7 or later

When choosing a cipher during an SSLv3 or TLSv1 handshake, normally the client's preference is used. If this directive is enabled, the server's preference will be used instead.

示例

SSLHonorCipherOrder on

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SSLMutex 指令

说明Semaphore for internal mutual exclusion of operations
语法SSLMutex type
默认值SSLMutex none
作用域server config
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This configures the SSL engine's semaphore (aka. lock) which is used for mutual exclusion of operations which have to be done in a synchronized way between the pre-forked Apache server processes. This directive can only be used in the global server context because it's only useful to have one global mutex. This directive is designed to closely match the AcceptMutex directive.

The following Mutex types are available:

示例

SSLMutex file:/usr/local/apache/logs/ssl_mutex

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SSLOptions 指令

说明Configure various SSL engine run-time options
语法SSLOptions [+|-]option ...
作用域server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
覆盖项Options
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive can be used to control various run-time options on a per-directory basis. Normally, if multiple SSLOptions could apply to a directory, then the most specific one is taken completely; the options are not merged. However if all the options on the SSLOptions directive are preceded by a plus (+) or minus (-) symbol, the options are merged. Any options preceded by a + are added to the options currently in force, and any options preceded by a - are removed from the options currently in force.

The available options are:

示例

SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth -StrictRequire
<Files ~ "\.(cgi|shtml)$">
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars +CompatEnvVars -ExportCertData
<Files>

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SSLPassPhraseDialog 指令

说明Type of pass phrase dialog for encrypted private keys
语法SSLPassPhraseDialog type
默认值SSLPassPhraseDialog builtin
作用域server config
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

When Apache starts up it has to read the various Certificate (see SSLCertificateFile) and Private Key (see SSLCertificateKeyFile) files of the SSL-enabled virtual servers. Because for security reasons the Private Key files are usually encrypted, mod_ssl needs to query the administrator for a Pass Phrase in order to decrypt those files. This query can be done in two ways which can be configured by type:

示例

SSLPassPhraseDialog exec:/usr/local/apache/sbin/pp-filter

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SSLProtocol 指令

说明Configure usable SSL protocol flavors
语法SSLProtocol [+|-]protocol ...
默认值SSLProtocol all
作用域server config, virtual host
覆盖项Options
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive can be used to control the SSL protocol flavors mod_ssl should use when establishing its server environment. Clients then can only connect with one of the provided protocols.

The available (case-insensitive) protocols are:

示例

# enable SSLv3 and TLSv1, but not SSLv2
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2

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SSLProxyCACertificateFile 指令

说明File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Remote Server Auth
语法SSLProxyCACertificateFile file-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CA) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used for Remote Server Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded Certificate files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLProxyCACertificatePath.

示例

SSLProxyCACertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/ca-bundle-remote-server.crt

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SSLProxyCACertificatePath 指令

说明Directory of PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Remote Server Auth
语法SSLProxyCACertificatePath directory-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used to verify the remote server certificate on Remote Server Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you can't just place the Certificate files there: you also have to create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

示例

SSLProxyCACertificatePath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/

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SSLProxyCARevocationFile 指令

说明File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Remote Server Auth
语法SSLProxyCARevocationFile file-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CA) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used for Remote Server Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded CRL files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLProxyCARevocationPath.

示例

SSLProxyCARevocationFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/ca-bundle-remote-server.crl

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SSLProxyCARevocationPath 指令

说明Directory of PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Remote Server Auth
语法SSLProxyCARevocationPath directory-path
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used to revoke the remote server certificate on Remote Server Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you have not only to place the CRL files there. Additionally you have to create symbolic links named hash-value.rN. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

示例

SSLProxyCARevocationPath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/

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SSLProxyCipherSuite 指令

说明Cipher Suite available for negotiation in SSL proxy handshake
语法SSLProxyCipherSuite cipher-spec
默认值SSLProxyCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP
作用域server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
覆盖项AuthConfig
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

Equivalent to SSLCipherSuite, but for the proxy connection. Please refer to SSLCipherSuite for additional information.

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SSLProxyEngine 指令

说明SSL Proxy Engine Operation Switch
语法SSLProxyEngine on|off
默认值SSLProxyEngine off
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive toggles the usage of the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine for proxy. This is usually used inside a <VirtualHost> section to enable SSL/TLS for proxy usage in a particular virtual host. By default the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine is disabled for proxy image both for the main server and all configured virtual hosts.

示例

<VirtualHost _default_:443>
SSLProxyEngine on
...
</VirtualHost>

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SSLProxyMachineCertificateFile 指令

说明File of concatenated PEM-encoded client certificates and keys to be used by the proxy
语法SSLProxyMachineCertificateFile filename
作用域server config
覆盖项Not applicable
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you keep the certificates and keys used for authentication of the proxy server to remote servers.

This referenced file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded certificate files, in order of preference. Use this directive alternatively or additionally to SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath.

Currently there is no support for encrypted private keys

示例

SSLProxyMachineCertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/proxy.pem

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SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath 指令

说明Directory of PEM-encoded client certificates and keys to be used by the proxy
语法SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath directory
作用域server config
覆盖项Not applicable
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the certificates and keys used for authentication of the proxy server to remote servers.

The files in this directory must be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. Additionally, you must create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

Currently there is no support for encrypted private keys

示例

SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath /usr/local/apache2/conf/proxy.crt/

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SSLProxyProtocol 指令

说明Configure usable SSL protocol flavors for proxy usage
语法SSLProxyProtocol [+|-]protocol ...
默认值SSLProxyProtocol all
作用域server config, virtual host
覆盖项Options
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive can be used to control the SSL protocol flavors mod_ssl should use when establishing its server environment for proxy . It will only connect to servers using one of the provided protocols.

Please refer to SSLProtocol for additional information.

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SSLProxyVerify 指令

说明Type of remote server Certificate verification
语法SSLProxyVerify level
默认值SSLProxyVerify none
作用域server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
覆盖项AuthConfig
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

When a proxy is configured to forward requests to a remote SSL server, this directive can be used to configure certificate verification of the remote server. Notice that this directive can be used both in per-server and per-directory context. In per-server context it applies to the remote server authentication process used in the standard SSL handshake when a connection is established by the proxy. In per-directory context it forces a SSL renegotation with the reconfigured remote server verification level after the HTTP request was read but before the HTTP response is sent.

Note that even when certificate verification is enabled, mod_ssl does not check whether the commonName (hostname) attribute of the server certificate matches the hostname used to connect to the server. In other words, the proxy does not guarantee that the SSL connection to the backend server is "secure" beyond the fact that the certificate is signed by one of the CAs configured using the SSLProxyCACertificatePath and/or SSLProxyCACertificateFile directives.

The following levels are available for level:

In practice only levels nonerequire are really interesting, because level optional doesn't work with all servers and level optional_no_ca is actually against the idea of authentication (but can be used to establish SSL test pages, etc.)

示例

SSLProxyVerify require

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SSLProxyVerifyDepth 指令

说明Maximum depth of CA Certificates in Remote Server Certificate verification
语法SSLProxyVerifyDepth number
默认值SSLProxyVerifyDepth 1
作用域server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
覆盖项AuthConfig
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets how deeply mod_ssl should verify before deciding that the remote server does not have a valid certificate. Notice that this directive can be used both in per-server and per-directory context. In per-server context it applies to the client authentication process used in the standard SSL handshake when a connection is established. In per-directory context it forces a SSL renegotation with the reconfigured remote server verification depth after the HTTP request was read but before the HTTP response is sent.

The depth actually is the maximum number of intermediate certificate issuers, i.e. the number of CA certificates which are max allowed to be followed while verifying the remote server certificate. A depth of 0 means that self-signed remote server certificates are accepted only, the default depth of 1 means the remote server certificate can be self-signed or has to be signed by a CA which is directly known to the server (i.e. the CA's certificate is under SSLProxyCACertificatePath), etc.

示例

SSLProxyVerifyDepth 10

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SSLRandomSeed 指令

说明Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) seeding source
语法SSLRandomSeed context source [bytes]
作用域server config
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This configures one or more sources for seeding the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) in OpenSSL at startup time (context is startup) and/or just before a new SSL connection is established (context is connect). This directive can only be used in the global server context because the PRNG is a global facility.

The following source variants are available:

示例

SSLRandomSeed startup builtin
SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/random
SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/urandom 1024
SSLRandomSeed startup exec:/usr/local/bin/truerand 16
SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/random
SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/urandom 1024

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SSLRequire 指令

说明Allow access only when an arbitrarily complex boolean expression is true
语法SSLRequire expression
作用域directory, .htaccess
覆盖项AuthConfig
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive specifies a general access requirement which has to be fulfilled in order to allow access. It is a very powerful directive because the requirement specification is an arbitrarily complex boolean expression containing any number of access checks.

The implementation of SSLRequire is not thread safe. Using SSLRequire inside .htaccess files on a threaded MPM may cause random crashes.

The expression must match the following syntax (given as a BNF grammar notation):

expr     ::= "true" | "false"
           | "!" expr
           | expr "&&" expr
           | expr "||" expr
           | "(" expr ")"
           | comp

comp     ::= word "==" word | word "eq" word
           | word "!=" word | word "ne" word
           | word "<"  word | word "lt" word
           | word "<=" word | word "le" word
           | word ">"  word | word "gt" word
           | word ">=" word | word "ge" word
           | word "in" "{" wordlist "}"
           | word "in" "OID(" word ")"
           | word "=~" regex
           | word "!~" regex

wordlist ::= word
           | wordlist ", " word

word     ::= digit
           | cstring
           | variable
           | function

digit    ::= [0-9]+
cstring  ::= "..."
variable ::= "%{" varname "}"
function ::= funcname "(" funcargs ")"

while for varname any variable from Table 3 can be used. Finally for funcname the following functions are available:

Notice that expression is first parsed into an internal machine representation and then evaluated in a second step. Actually, in Global and Per-Server Class context expression is parsed at startup time and at runtime only the machine representation is executed. For Per-Directory context this is different: here expression has to be parsed and immediately executed for every request.

示例

SSLRequire ( %{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)-/ \
and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." \
and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} \
and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 \
and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20 ) \
or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192\.76\.162\.[0-9]+$/

OID() function expects to find zero or more instances of the given OID in the client certificate, and compares the left-hand side string against the value of matching OID attributes. Every matching OID is checked, until a match is found.

Standard CGI/1.0 and Apache variables:

HTTP_USER_AGENT        PATH_INFO             AUTH_TYPE
HTTP_REFERER           QUERY_STRING          SERVER_SOFTWARE
HTTP_COOKIE            REMOTE_HOST           API_VERSION
HTTP_FORWARDED         REMOTE_IDENT          TIME_YEAR
HTTP_HOST              IS_SUBREQ             TIME_MON
HTTP_PROXY_CONNECTION  DOCUMENT_ROOT         TIME_DAY
HTTP_ACCEPT            SERVER_ADMIN          TIME_HOUR
HTTP:headername        SERVER_NAME           TIME_MIN
THE_REQUEST            SERVER_PORT           TIME_SEC
REQUEST_METHOD         SERVER_PROTOCOL       TIME_WDAY
REQUEST_SCHEME         REMOTE_ADDR           TIME
REQUEST_URI            REMOTE_USER           ENV:variablename
REQUEST_FILENAME

SSL-related variables:

HTTPS                  SSL_CLIENT_M_VERSION   SSL_SERVER_M_VERSION
                       SSL_CLIENT_M_SERIAL    SSL_SERVER_M_SERIAL
SSL_PROTOCOL           SSL_CLIENT_V_START     SSL_SERVER_V_START
SSL_SESSION_ID         SSL_CLIENT_V_END       SSL_SERVER_V_END
SSL_CIPHER             SSL_CLIENT_S_DN        SSL_SERVER_S_DN
SSL_CIPHER_EXPORT      SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_C      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_C
SSL_CIPHER_ALGKEYSIZE  SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_ST     SSL_SERVER_S_DN_ST
SSL_CIPHER_USEKEYSIZE  SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_L      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_L
SSL_VERSION_LIBRARY    SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_O
SSL_VERSION_INTERFACE  SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU     SSL_SERVER_S_DN_OU
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_CN     SSL_SERVER_S_DN_CN
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_T      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_T
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_I      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_I
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_G      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_G
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_S      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_S
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_D      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_D
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_UID    SSL_SERVER_S_DN_UID
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_Email  SSL_SERVER_S_DN_Email
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN        SSL_SERVER_I_DN
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_C      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_C
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_ST     SSL_SERVER_I_DN_ST
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_L      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_L
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_O      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_O
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_OU     SSL_SERVER_I_DN_OU
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_CN     SSL_SERVER_I_DN_CN
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_T      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_T
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_I      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_I
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_G      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_G
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_S      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_S
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_D      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_D
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_UID    SSL_SERVER_I_DN_UID
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_Email  SSL_SERVER_I_DN_Email
                       SSL_CLIENT_A_SIG       SSL_SERVER_A_SIG
                       SSL_CLIENT_A_KEY       SSL_SERVER_A_KEY
                       SSL_CLIENT_CERT        SSL_SERVER_CERT
                       SSL_CLIENT_CERT_CHAIN_n
                       SSL_CLIENT_VERIFY
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SSLRequireSSL 指令

说明Deny access when SSL is not used for the HTTP request
语法SSLRequireSSL
作用域directory, .htaccess
覆盖项AuthConfig
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive forbids access unless HTTP over SSL (i.e. HTTPS) is enabled for the current connection. This is very handy inside the SSL-enabled virtual host or directories for defending against configuration errors that expose stuff that should be protected. When this directive is present all requests are denied which are not using SSL.

示例

SSLRequireSSL

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SSLSessionCache 指令

说明Type of the global/inter-process SSL Session Cache
语法SSLSessionCache type
默认值SSLSessionCache none
作用域server config
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This configures the storage type of the global/inter-process SSL Session Cache. This cache is an optional facility which speeds up parallel request processing. For requests to the same server process (via HTTP keep-alive), OpenSSL already caches the SSL session information locally. But because modern clients request inlined images and other data via parallel requests (usually up to four parallel requests are common) those requests are served by different pre-forked server processes. Here an inter-process cache helps to avoid unneccessary session handshakes.

The following four storage types are currently supported:

例子

SSLSessionCache dbm:/usr/local/apache/logs/ssl_gcache_data
SSLSessionCache shm:/usr/local/apache/logs/ssl_gcache_data(512000)

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SSLSessionCacheTimeout 指令

说明Number of seconds before an SSL session expires in the Session Cache
语法SSLSessionCacheTimeout seconds
默认值SSLSessionCacheTimeout 300
作用域server config, virtual host
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the timeout in seconds for the information stored in the global/inter-process SSL Session Cache and the OpenSSL internal memory cache. It can be set as low as 15 for testing, but should be set to higher values like 300 in real life.

示例

SSLSessionCacheTimeout 600

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SSLUserName 指令

说明Variable name to determine user name
语法SSLUserName varname
作用域server config, directory, .htaccess
覆盖项AuthConfig
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl
兼容性仅在 Apache 2.0.51 及以后的版本中可用

This directive sets the "user" field in the Apache request object. This is used by lower modules to identify the user with a character string. In particular, this may cause the environment variable REMOTE_USER to be set. The varname can be any of the SSL environment variables.

Note that this directive has no effect if the FakeBasic option is used (see SSLOptions).

示例

SSLUserName SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_CN

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SSLVerifyClient 指令

说明Type of Client Certificate verification
语法SSLVerifyClient level
默认值SSLVerifyClient none
作用域server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
覆盖项AuthConfig
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets the Certificate verification level for the Client Authentication. Notice that this directive can be used both in per-server and per-directory context. In per-server context it applies to the client authentication process used in the standard SSL handshake when a connection is established. In per-directory context it forces a SSL renegotation with the reconfigured client verification level after the HTTP request was read but before the HTTP response is sent.

The following levels are available for level:

In practice only levels nonerequire are really interesting, because level optional doesn't work with all browsers and level optional_no_ca is actually against the idea of authentication (but can be used to establish SSL test pages, etc.)

示例

SSLVerifyClient require

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SSLVerifyDepth 指令

说明Maximum depth of CA Certificates in Client Certificate verification
语法SSLVerifyDepth number
默认值SSLVerifyDepth 1
作用域server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
覆盖项AuthConfig
状态扩展(E)
模块mod_ssl

This directive sets how deeply mod_ssl should verify before deciding that the clients don't have a valid certificate. Notice that this directive can be used both in per-server and per-directory context. In per-server context it applies to the client authentication process used in the standard SSL handshake when a connection is established. In per-directory context it forces a SSL renegotation with the reconfigured client verification depth after the HTTP request was read but before the HTTP response is sent.

The depth actually is the maximum number of intermediate certificate issuers, i.e. the number of CA certificates which are max allowed to be followed while verifying the client certificate. A depth of 0 means that self-signed client certificates are accepted only, the default depth of 1 means the client certificate can be self-signed or has to be signed by a CA which is directly known to the server (i.e. the CA's certificate is under SSLCACertificatePath), etc.

示例

SSLVerifyDepth 10